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Submitted: 12 December 2016 Modified: 05 April 2017
HERDIN Record #: PCHRD16121213392915

Ethnic disparity in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference and its determinants among Asians with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study.

Xiao  Zhang,
Jian Jun  Liu,
Chee Fang  Sum,
Yeoh Lee  Ying,
Subramaniam  Tavintharan,
Na  Li,
Chang  Su,
Serena  Low,
Simon BM  Lee,
Wern Ee  Tang,
Su Chi  Lim

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OBJECTIVES: An inter-arm difference in systolic blood pressure (IADSBP) of 10 mmHg or more has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased mortality in T2DM patients. We aim to study ethnic disparity in IADSBP and its determinants in a multi-ethnic T2DM Asian cohort.
METHODOLOGY: Bilateral blood pressures were collected sequentially in Chinese (n=654), Malays (n=266) and Indians (n=313). IADSBP was analyzed as categories (
RESULTS: Malays (27.4%) and Indians (22.4%) had higher prevalence of IADSBP ≥10 mmHg than Chinese (17.4%) (p=0.002). After adjustment for age, gender, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index (BMI), heart rate, pulse wave velocity (PWV), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), smoking, hypertension, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), and usage of hypertension medications, ethnicity remained associated with IADSBP. While Malays were more likely to have IADSBP ≥10 mmHg than Chinese (OR=1.648, 95%CI: 1.138-2.400, p=0.009), Indians had comparable odds with the Chinese. BMI (OR=1.054, 95%CI: 1.022-1.087, p=0.001) and hypertension (OR=2.529, 95%CI: 1.811-3.533, p<0.001) were also associated with IADSBP ≥10 mmHg.
CONCLUSION: IADSBP in Malays were more likely to be ≥10 mmHg than the Chinese which may explain their higher risk for CVD and mortality. Measuring bilateral blood pressures may identify high-risk T2DM individuals for intensive risk factor-management.

Publication Type
Publication Sub Type
Journal Article, Original
Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies
Publication Date
November 2016
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Library Box No.116 Fulltext pdf (Request Document)

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