Report an error   

HERDIN Record #: R07-CIM-18060811473081 Submitted: 08 June 2018 Modified: 14 August 2018

In vitro calcium oxalate crystallization inhibition by Cucurbita maxima (squash) meat hydroalcoholic extract: an approach to anti lithiasis.

Janica Loren  Alquire ,
Chalres Louiei Arenas ,
Alfie Calingacion ,
Joresza De Claro,
Clarissa Mae Derecho ,
Mario Rafael Estella Jr.,
Alyzah Masorong ,
Juan Bernando Lava,
Beryl Bernadine Salazar,
Penpilai Sutantawong,
Maria Philina Villamor,
Lilith Karmel Villarante

See More

Context/Background: Kidneys perform a wide variety of functions needed for the proper functioning of the human body. Renal calculi, or kidney stones, arise from various crystallized substances found in the urine. Objective: This study primarily aims to determine the in vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth by Cucurbita maxima meat extracts. Specifically, it aims to determine the effect of 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations of Cucurbita maxima meat extracts on the turbidity of the artificial urine sample through absorbance reading. Study Design: Experimental-Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Maneuver: Three experimental groups were treated with different concentrations of squash extract (5%,10%, and 20%) versus the control group with no treatment. An artificial urine was made using standard procedures. The addition of calcium chloride and sodium oxalate will cause the formation of calcium oxalate in the sample. Treatments were added to corresponding test tubes and 10 minutes incubation time was followed. Outcomes Measures: The turbidity of the samples were determined using spectrophotometric technique. Based on the data gathered, inhibition of calcium oxalate formation was determined using analysis of variance as a statistical stool. Results: Using ANOVA, there was a significant difference in the in vitro inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal formation treated with different concentrations of Cucurbita maxima meat extracts. Using Duncan's multiple range test, all treatment 1,2 and 3 are significantly different with the control set-up. However, treatment 2 and 1 are not significantly different. Conclusion: Based on the data gathered, as squash meat extract concentration increases, the percent of inhibition of calcium oxalate in the sample also increases. The % of inhibition for the three different experimental groups was most high as the in treatment 3 having 20% (v/v) squash meat extract, followed by treatment treatment 2 having 10% (v/v) squash meat extract then lastly the treatment 1 having 5% (v/v) squash meat extract. However, through statistical analysis, both treatment 1 and 2 showed no significant difference. This means that the percent of inhibition on treatments 1 and 2 does not differ from each other. Keywords: squash, Cucurbita maxima, calcium oxalate crystals, anti lithiasis.   

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Institute of Medicine Abstract
1. Bureau of Agricultural Research . RDMIC Building, Quezon City : Bureau of Agricultural Research , 2012. . Retrieved from: http://http:
2. F.D, Wilde . National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data. U.S. : Department of Interior , 2005. (Chapter A6)
3. Flores , LS . StruartxChange. Philippine Medical Plants , 2014. . Retrieved from:
4. Hall, JE . Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th ed.. Elsevier (USA): pte Ltd; Elsevier Inc., 2011.
5. Jose , MA , Balasubramanian, S , Rahman, AH , Varghese, NA , Kumar, AS , Sumaiya, A . "Diuretic activity of seeds of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne in albino wistar rats," Indian Journal of Pharmacology 40, S72, 2008
6. Kanu PA, , Narula, S , Kakkar, M , Tandon, C . "Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators." BioMed Research International , September 2013
7. (2013, November 30). How do kidney stones form?. KidneyStoners.Org.. . Retrieved from:
8. Mcpherson, R , Pincus, M . Henry. Singapore: Pte Ltd: Elsevier Inc, 2012.
9. Muntean, E , Muntean, N , Duda, MM . "Cucurbita maxima Duch. as a medicinal plant" Hop and Medicinal Plants 21(1-2): 2013. Retrieved from:
10. Ngunboonsri, P . "The effect of pumpkin seeds on exalcrystalluria and urinary compositions of children in hyperendemic area" The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 115-21, 1987
11. Sarvesh , DD . "Overciew on Cucurbita maxima " International Journal of Phytopharmacy , 2012. Retrieved from:
12. W.H, Boyce . "Organic Matrix of human urinary concretions" The American Journal of Medicine 45(5): 673-683, 1968
13. Verma, R , Saha, S . "Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by an extract of Bergenia ciliata " Arab Journal of Urology 11, 197-192, 2013
14. Verma, R , Saha, S . "Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by extract of Bergenia ciliata" Arab Journal of Urology 11, 187-192,

Copyright © One Window Project 2018. All rights reserved.