Immunization is one of the most important public health interventions and a cost effective strategy to control the infectious diseases especially in children. One of these vaccines important for children is the Pentavalent Vaccine. Pentavalent Vaccine provides protection to a child from 5 life-threatening diseases - Dihteria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Hib. The pain associated with such injections is a source of distress for children, their parents and those administering the injections. If not addressed, this pain can lead to pre procedural anxiety in the future, needle fears and health care avoidance behaviours, including non-adherence with vaccination schedules. So, various treatments were used to alleviate or lessen the pain such as medications, therapies and mind-body technique.
The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of cold therapy on pre-injection site of Pentavalent Vaccine among infants by means of doing an experimental method of research using a pain assessment tool which is the face, legs, activity, cry and consolability (FLACC). The FLACC scale is a measurement used to assess pain for children between the ages of 2 months and 7 years of individuals that are unable to communicate their pain. The scale is scored in a range of 0-10 with 0 representing no pain. The scale has five criteria, which are each assigned a score of 0,1,or 2. Subsequent to this, intensity of pain in the Control Group and the Experimental group based on FLACC and the significant difference on the intensity of pain between Control Group and Cold Therapy group subjects was observed.
In this study, The FLACC score of the Control group was ranging from 6 to 10 with amean value of 8.7 which is higher than the FLACC score of the Experimental group having a score ranging from 0 to 5 with a mean value of 1.9. This indicates that the difference between FLACC score of infants with and without Cold Therapy on pre-injection site of Pentavalent Vaccine yield significant difference for the experimental group.
The implication of these results for the Public Health Nurses or Midwives together with the Nursing Students in the Health Care Center is they may include Cold Therapy as a pre-injection intervention in decreasing the pain of infants aged 6 weeks to 14 months old. For the Clinical Instructors, they can suggest to students and co-clinical instructors a Cold Therapy on pre-injection site of Pentavalent Vaccine among infants in the Health Care Center as an additional nursing intervention.
Further research is recommended to conduct other related studies for other age group and other types of Vaccine with the use of Cold Therapy and other means of treatment for reducing the pre-injection site pain.